A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment of Homosexuality


This paper examined and synthesized studies of treatment of individuals identified as homosexual using meta-analytic technique. A large number of studies (146) evaluating treatment efficacy were identified, most published prior to 1975 and 14 of which met inclusion criteria and provided statistics that could be used in a meta-analysis. These 14 outcome studies were published between 1969 and 1982 and used primarily behavioral interventions. Analysis indicated that treatment for homosexuality was significantly more effective than alternative treatments or control groups for homosexuality (ES = .72), and significant differences were found across pre- to postanalysis (ES = .89). In other words, the average patient receiving treatment was better off than 79% of those in the alternative treatments or as compared to pretreatment scores on the several outcome measures. This meta-analysis of 14 studies provides empirical support for a group of 146 studies which have narratively suggested that treatment for homosexuality is effective. Variables related to treatment efficacy are examined.


Nature vs nurture: Are leaders born or made? A behavior genetic investigation of leadership style


With the recent resurgence in popularity of trait theories of leadership, it is timely to consider the
genetic determination of the multiple factors comprising the leadership construct. Individual
differences in personality traits have been found to be moderately to highly heritable, and so it
follows that if there are reliable personality trait differences between leaders and non-leaders,
then there may be a heritable component to these individual differences. Despite this connection
between leadership and personality traits, however, there are no studies of the genetic basis of
leadership using modern behavior genetic methodology. The present study proposes to address the
lack of research in this area by examining the heritability of leadership style, as measured by selfreport
psychometric inventories. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), the Leadership
Ability Evaluation, and the Adjective Checklist were completed by 247 adult twin pairs
(183 monozygotic and 64 same-sex dizygotic). Results indicated that most of the leadership
dimensions examined in this study are heritable, as are two higher level factors (resembling
transactional and transformational leadership) derived from an obliquely rotated principal
components factors analysis of the MLQ. Univariate analyses suggested that 48% of the variance
in transactional leadership may be explained by additive heritability, and 59% of the variance in
transformational leadership may be explained by non-additive (dominance) heritability. Multivariate
analyses indicated that most of the variables studied shared substantial genetic
covariance, suggesting a large overlap in the underlying genes responsible for the leadership